The Spatial and Gendered Organization of the Work Process in the Early 20th Century

Hawthorne Works 1932

The Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois. 1932.


An office using punched-card technology. Early 20th century.



Old and new filing systems at the Fox River Butter Company, c.1920 (Yates, 1989)


Crunching numbers. Compare this with the spatial (and gendered!) organization of work in a shirtwaist factory below.

shirtwaste factory